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ONE HUI^TDRED YEARS OF PROGRESS 5 A GRAPHIC, HISTORICAL AND PICTORIAL ACCOUNT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND: ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

James Sullivan, M. D,, ed.

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRP^R'^

Boston & Portland Illustrated Publishing Company- Henry O'Brien 1895

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

VERY REV. WILLIAM BYRNE, D. D., V. G.

BOSTON puinc immm

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON. 17

contents upon him. His Grace may be deeply moved and yet not give outward expression to his emotion. On this occasion, however, he yielded to it in a way that revealed an intenseness of feeling not generally expected. It was characteristic of his unselfish nature that, joyful though the occasion was, the expression should take the form of indignation for hurt inflicted upon the most defenseless of his assistants. This was manifested in his speech made at the reception given him by the Boston Catholic Union, and which next day thrilled the city. Referring to the anti-Catholic demonstrations evoked by the protest of a priest against the teaching of false history in the public schools, he said among other things: "It is not the accusations that were made against us, not the revilings even, not even the insults that I find fault with, but the attacks which were made on the virtue of our ladies in religious societies. The revilers attacked the clergy, but to that we were less sensiti\^, because we are men. But when they attacked women who had devoted their lives to virginity, spouses of Christ, and kept up the attack ; when placards were placed on our walls and not torn down- by the authorities of the city then it was almost time to resent the injuries. And yet, you remained quiet. F<5r 'tliis I gi\-e you credit, and for this I am proud to-day. It was a time, indeed, for every one to mutter..arfcl gnash Ijis teeth as he went through the streets. For myself I knew that the trouble came not from the l^etter part of , the coramimity. It was only a storm that was passing over. What affected'me most- and I will give- vent to jt to-night^ was not the insults, nor the accusations, nor the revilings, but I was ashamed for Bosto'ri that air this did not com- mence with those who expressed them openly, but came in cold blood from hidden leaders for political effect." "In the twenty-five years preceding this celebration, missions of more or less importance were established by the Redemptorists, Marists, Franciscan, Oblate, and Augustinian Fathers. There were introduced, for the teaching of schools and the care of asylums and hospitals, the Xaverian Brothers, the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, Sisters (If St. Joseph, School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, the Gray Nuns of Montreal, Halifax Sisters of Charity, Madison Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Providence, Sisters of the Third Order of St. Dominic, Sisters of St. Anne, School Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and the Montreal Brothers of Charity.. Immediately after the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, parochial schools began to multiply at a ratithat gave a phenomenal increase. Perhaps the most important institution established w.is that of St. John's Tl5i::,ological Seminary at Brighton, founded in 1884. According to the Catholic Directories of the present year theriL^'-e now 176 churches, 400 priests, 99 parochial schools, 7 female academies, 3 colleges, i theological seminary,^'33,ooo pupils in Catholic schools, 122 ecclesiastical students, 10 orphan asylums with 1,000 orphans, and 7 hospitals, while the Catholic population is about 575,000.

In the Ecclesiastical Province of Boston, which includes the whole of New England, on the territory which first comprised the Diocese of Boston, there are now, to quote the same authority : i Archbishop, 8 Bishops, 1,150 priests, 287 seminaries, 738 churches, 154 chapels and stations, i theological seminary, :^o academies, 296 parochial schools, 55 charitable institutions, 98,260 pupils in parochial schools, and the Catholic population is estimated at 1,363,000 souls. "^

AUXILIARY BISHOP OF THE ARCHDIOCESE.

Bishop Br#y was born in the County Cavan, Ireland. Having completed his studies for the priesthood at All-HalloweS College, Dublin, he received Holy Orders in 1S65. The field of his mission was the Diocese of Boston. On arriving here he was assigned as curate at St. Vincent's Church, on Fort Hill.i Not long after, he was transferred to Newburyport, where he was when called to the pastoral charge of Amesbury in 1868. He served in this capacity for twenty-three years. In that time he replaced the little wooden structure that had been used as a house of worship by a fine brick church, capable of seating 1,200 persons; he built a brick school-house where the Catholic children of the parish have been receiving a grammar and high-school education; he built a convent for the teachers, the Sisters of St. Joseph; and last of all he erected a comfortable rectory. Father Brady had been permanent rector three years when he was elevated to the episcopate. He was consecrated in the Cathedral of Holy Cross, Boston, August 5, 1891. At the ceremonies His Grace, Arch-

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON. 19

bishop Williams, was the consecrator, with Bishop O'Reilly, of Springfield, and Bishop Harkins, of Providence, as assistants; Very Rev. William Byrne, D. D., V. G., was assistant priest; Rev. Thomas H. Shahan and Rev. Joseph H. Gallagher were deacons of honor to the Archbishop; Rev. Denis O'Callaghan and Rev. M. T. MacManus, deacons of the Mass; Rev. James Talbot, D. D., master of ceremonies; and the sermon was preached by Bishop Bradley of Manchester. Besides the prelates and clergymen already mentioned, Bishop de Goesbriand, of Burlington, and about 200 priests were present in the sanctuary.

VICAR- GENERAL OF THE ARCHDIOCESE.

The Very Rev. William Byrne, D. D., is the present vicar-general. High executive ability has distin- guished the performance of his official duties. He was born in 1835, in Kilmessan, County Meath, Ireland, not far from the birthplace of the late John Boyle O'Reilly. He came to this country at the age of nineteen, and had engaged in teaching a school near Baltimore, when, urged by a feeling that his true calling was the priesthood, he threw up all to prepare for that. His theological studies were made at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmittsburg, and he was ordained priest for Boston, December 31, 1864. For some time before his ordination and after it he was professor of mathematics and Greek in the college. He was called to Boston late in 1865. In the following year he was appointed chancellor of the diocese. He was assigned to the pastoral charge of St. Mary's Parish, Charlestown, in 1874. In this capacity it fell to his lot, June 6, 1875, to be the first Catholic priest permitted to hold divine service in the Charlestown State Prison. Upon the death of Father Lyndon, in 1878, Father Byrne was appointed to the office of vicar-general. Appealed to in behalf of Mount St. Mary's College, whose affairs had fallen into disorder, he accepted the presidency of that institution in 1880, and in three years succeeded in placing it upon the stable footing it has since maintained. Pie received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, in 1880, from Georgetown College. On returning to Boston he went to the Cathedral, where he acted as administrator of the Archdiocese during the absence of the Arch- bishop, until February i, 1884, when he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's, West End. He served in the same capacity in 1S87, and represented the Archbishop in Rome at the celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Pope Leo XIII., in 1888. As a writer, the vicar-general is master of a terse, clear style. Among his productions are the account of the Catholic Church in Boston in the Memorial History of Boston; his recent book on "Catholic Doctrine," which has received commendation from the highest authorities in the country, and articles contributed to Donahot s Magazine on the school question and other topics.

CHANCELLOR OF THE ARCHDIOCESE.

The office of chancellor of the diocese has been filled with marked ability by the Rev. Richard Neagle since July, 1886. Previous to his appointment he had spent nine years as assistant at St. Mary's Church, Charlestown. Born July 19, 1854, at Bradford, Mass., and graduated at Holy Cross College, Worcester, when nineteen years old, he was ordained priest, at St. Joseph's Seminary of Troy, by Cardinal McCloskey in May, 1877. He is the spiritual director of the Young Ladies' Charitable Association, of Boston, an organization that has become remarkable for the large amount of good it has accomplished in the few years of its existence. In 1891 he spent several months visiting in Europe and the Holy Land.

20 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

REV. RICHARD NEAGLE, Chancellor Archdiocese of Bosto

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

Catbebral of tbe IfJol^ Cross.

T the close of the RevoUition, a few Spaniards and Frenchmen, with thirty Irishmen, comprised the Catholic community of Boston. Abbe Claude Florent Bouchard de la Poterie, an ex-chaplain of the French fleet, formed them into a congregation. Having procured authority from the Rt. Rev. John Carrolh Bishop of Baltimore, it is alleged that he offered his first Mass in the residence of a Mr. Baury, on Green Street. In lygo a little Huguenot meeting- house on School Street was hired. After making some alterations in it, and naming it the Church of the Holy Cross, Abbe Poterie celebrated in it the first public Mass, November 2, 1788. The Abbe, who left for the West Indies, was succeeded in 1790 by the Rev. L. Rousselet, or Roussclot, as Mr. John Gilmary Shea calls him, also a French priest. Tliis clergyman did not remain long as, by Bishop Carroll's appointment, the Rev. John Thayer took charge of the New England mission June 10, 1790.

The lot on which the Huguenot Church was erected was bought in 1704, for "one hundred and ten pounds current silver money of New England," on which "to erect and build a church for the French conTeoation." It was situated about midway between the present site of the Parker House and Washington Street; the dimensions of the lot being 43^^- feet on " School House Lane," as School Street was then called, 36 feet on the side towards what is now Washington Street, 88^- feet on the side towards Tremont Street, and 35^ feet on the rear line. The small brick church was not erected for about ten years from date of purchase of the land. In 1748, the congregation had dwindled down to about seven male communicants, and was then sold to the trustees of a new Congregational Church for "three thousand

pounds of good bills." This society continued to use the Q CZJ^ ^ /Ij n0

building for a meeting-house for some years, when it was Q^'Vi^ J^<^'*^'^^^ sold to private parties who leased it to Father Thayer. C/

During the year 1791 Dr. Carroll paid a visit to Boston and was most cordially received and entertained, as would appear from a letter he sent to Governor Hancock after his return to Baltimore. This letter is dated August 28, 1791, and in it Dr. Carroll warmly e.xpresses his gratitude to the Governor and his lady, also to Mrs. Jaffray, Mr. Sheriff and his sister, the Rev. Mr. Thatcher, and Judge Sullivan for their civilities and politeness.

Father Tha}'er w.is the first Enghsh speaking pastor, and is regarded by some authorities as the first legitimate pastor of the Church of the Holy Cross. He was a convert to Catholicity. Born in Boston, of Protestant parents, he was brought up in all the prevailing misconceptions of the Catholic Church and its followers. After serving two years in Boston as a Congregationalist minister, he yielded to a secret desire to travel by going to Europe in 1 78 1 . His stay in France and Italy disabused him of his misconceptions. In Rome, he made a study of the Catholic religion, as he might have of the Koran, had he been in Constantinople. To do this the more completely, he obtained the assistance of a Jesuit Father and an Augustinian Friar. His investigation ended in convincing him that only the Catholic Church taught the true religion of Christ. In Rome, on May 25, 1783, he publicly abjured Protestanism and announced his purpose to enter the Catholic Church. Subsequently, deciding to become a priest, he studied at the College of St. Sulpice, in Paris, and in due time was admitted to Holy Orders.

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS,

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON. 23

On entering upon his pastoral duties in Boston, in tlie year 1790, lie found that tlie number of his flock did not exceed one hundred. In order to secure himself and them from possible molestation, he made it his first care to procure a lease of the School Street building. Then he took up his missionary work with enthusiasm. He made special efforts to convert his Protestant fellow countrymen. Through the newspapers, he offered to preach on the evenings of week days in any of the neighboring towns, provided a room or hall was furnished him for the purpose. Also, in the month of January, 179 1, he began a course of controversial lectures in the School Street Church, delivering two each week, for the benefit of the same people. Numbers of Protestants went to hear him and many conversions resulted, but considerable antagonism was aroused.

On August 20, 1792, he received from Bishop Carroll an assistant, in the person of the Rev. Francis Anthony Matignon, D. D. Dr. Matignon was one of four distinguished clergymen who, driven from France by

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the Revolution, landed in Baltimore June 24, 1792. He laad been Regius Professor of Divinity in the College of Navarre. Born in Paris, November 10, 1753, his youth was devoted to study and the practices of religion. Having completed the course of St. Sulpice, and taken the degree of Doctor of Divinity, he was ordained priest September 10, 1778. He has been described as an accomplished Christian gentleman. Constantly studying the wants and anticipating the wishes of all he knew, he was a scholar of wide range, and was gifted with a sound judgment and a rich imagination. He was just the sort of man needed to relieve the tension of the situation in Boston at that time. His learning and piety caused him to be widely respected, while his unfailing courtesy, gentleness, and patience disarmed hostility. His assistance enabled Father Thayer to carry the gospel to other parts of New England.

In 1799 Bishop Carroll found it necessary to send Father Thayer to Kentucky. While engaged in this mission he conceived the plan of establishing a convent school for girls, such as he had often seen in Europe, in his native city. To collect funds for this object, with the permission of the Bishop, he went to Europe a few years later. In Limerick, Ireland, death put an end to his pious work, February 15, 1815. His project had been condemned as foolish and impracticable, but he was able to bequeath Dr. Matignon from eight to ten thousand dollars with which to begin its execution.

Dr. Matignon succeeded Father Thayer in the charge of the New England mission. The Rev. John

Cheverus, who had been recalled from Maine a short time before, was his assistant. The united labors of

these two ideal priests were rewarded with the happiest results. Not the least gratifying of these was the

allayment of the animosity which many of their Protestant neighbors had come to entertain against the

^atholics again.

Another of these results was the increase of the congregation to such a number as to make apparent the need of a larger place of worship in the near future, the Catholic population at this time being estimated at 1,300. The lease of the church on School Street was about to expire, and they had to decide whether to renew the lease or select another place. Under these circumstances a suggestion to build a church was favorably received. At a meeting held in the church on Sunday, March 31, 1799, Don Juan Stoughton, the Spanish Consul, John Magner, Michael Burns, John Duggan, Patrick Campbell, Owen Callaghan, and Edmund Connor were appointed a committee to consider the matter, and report at another meeting to be held on the following Sunday. At the second meeting, in accordance with the committee's report, there was opened a subscription list, which, by a preamble, bound each signer to pay half the sum promised immediately, and the other half within six months from that time. In this way, after a few days, $3,202 was pledged by 212 persons. This was a large sum for people in the circumstances of these pioneer Catholics. It surpassed expectation and greatly encouraged the promoters of the enterprise. So great was the zeal awakened, that some of the poorest members of the congregation gave all the money they had, while others promised to contribute half their earnings by monthly payments until the object was attained.

Contributions poured in steadily after this. The project seems to have awakened general interest in Boston. About 140 persons of Protestant creeds, headed by John Adams, President of the United States,

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

25

sent in donations. Also, from the South, came more subscriptions, in response to Dr. Matignon's appeal. The total amount collected before the building was finished was $16,153.52. Protestants contributed $3,433.00 of this sum. Of the remainder, $10,771.69 was given by members of the congregation, and $1,948.83 by other Catholics. At another meeting, held. October 28, 1799, it was decided to buy from the Boston Theatre Corporation a lot situated at the foot of Franklin Square, as a site for the proposed church, for $2,500. This done, the property was made over to P)ishop Carroll and Dr. Matignon in trust for the congregation. The plans of the church were gratuftously furnished by James Bulfinch, who also superintended the erection with- out remuneration. Subsequently, in testimony of their gratitude, the congregation presented Mr. l-julfinch with a beautiful silver urn valued at $165.

(jround w.\s broken for the foundation of the church on St. l^atrick's Day, in the year 1800. More than three years elapsed before it was ready for dedication. 'J'he ceremony was performed September 29, 1S03, by IJishop Car- roll, assisted by Dr. Matignon, Father Cheverus, and two other priests. Having robed in the house of the Spanish Consul, on Franklin Square, they went in ]irocession to the cliurch, attended by a few acolytes. Here a large assemblage, partly drawn by curiosity and partly by devotion, awaited them. The building was blessed in con- formity with the prescribed forms, under the name of the Church of the Holy Cross. Then followed a Pontifical High Mass, also celebrated by Bishop Carroll, and Father Cheverus preached an appropriate sermon. The collection taken up on this occasion amounted to $286.

The church was a brick structure of Ionic design, built over a stone basement, and meas- ured 60 feet front by 80 feet depth. Besides a gallery for the choir, it had one running along- each side for the use of worshipers. Prominent among the interior furnishings was a striking altar-piece, representing the crucifixion, painted by Lawrence Sargent, a Boston artist of that day. A bell was presented to the church, some time later, by General Hasket Derby, a Protestant, and grandf.ither of the present Dr. Hasket Derby, the well known Boston oculist. The total cost of the church was $20,000.

When New England was constituted the Diocese of Boston in iSoS, it was by Dr. Matignon's request that

his assistant, Father Cheverus, was made Bishop, so little influence with him had mere considerations of self.

O ^ /^ Te'i years later, on September 19, after having

■+- ia^Lx^ /^>W^ ^, ^ ^^^-$ labored unremittingly in the New England mission

tx *'*''*'Xi»-c,t^ ^V.« t-" •* / for twenty-six years, he passed to his reward. His

body was first taken to the Granary burying-ground and deposited in the vault of John Magner. Soon after Bishop Cheverus purchased the land for St. Augustine's Cemetery. After it was prepared for its purpose and dedicated he had the remains of his friend re-interred there. They now rest in a vault within the little Mortuary Chapel near the altar, and a memorial tablet, set in the w.ill on the epistle side, bears eloquent testi- mony in gilded lettering to the respect and affection in which he had been held by Bishop and people.

The Rev, William Taylor was the next clergyman of note who served as pastor of the Cathedral. Bishop Cheverus, who had previously appointed Father Taylor his vicar-general, when leaving for France in 1823, entrusted the affairs of the diocese to his administration. Upon the arrival of Bishop Fenwick, Father Taylor

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOvSTON. 27

resigned with tlie purpose of going to Europe. This left the Rev. Patrick Byrne the only priest at the Cathedral.

The enlargement of the Cathedral was one of the first objects to receive Bishop Fenwick's attention. With the exception of St. Augustine's Mortuary Chapel in South Boston, there was no other place of worship within the city limits. The congregation had largely increased in the first twenty-five years, and was then too numerous to be accommodated in the Church of Holy Cross. In accordance with a plan drawn by the Bishop, another building, 72 feet wide by 40 feet in depth, was added at the rear gable. Begun in 1827, the work was completed in the following year. Besides increasing the capacity of the auditorium, it furnished much needed space for school-rooms in the basement story. Here was kept a school which, taught by ecclesiastical students, became a nursery for still more ecclesiastical students. 'Among its pupils was John J. Williams, destined afterwards to ' become the Archbishop of Boston. The first ordination in the Cathedral took place in the Ember Days of December, 1827, when the Rev. James Fitton and the Rev. William Wiley were admitted to the priesthood. On August 13, 1834, two days after the destruction of the Ursuline Convent in Charlestown, a guard of armed citizens held at bay a mob that came to wreck the Cathedral. Occasionally afterwards, parties taken from the congregation were obliged to take turns in watching it lest it should fall a prey to the Know-Nothing incendiaries.

After serving its purpose for nearly threescore years it was at length resolved to abandon it. Once more the congregation had outgrown its capacities. Its timbers were weakening with age. Owing to the encroach- ments of business the locality had become most unsuitable for a church. A strong desire for a Cathedral worthy of the diocese had developed. Influenced by these considerations, Bishop Fitzpatrick disposed of it in Sep- tember, i860, to Isaac Rich at the much enhanced price of $115,000. The last services were held on the i6th of the same month, when Bishop Fitzpatrick, assisted by the Rev. James Fitton and the Rev. Michael Moran, celebrated a Pontifical. High Mass. So deeply affected by the occasion was the Bishop, that he distrusted his ability to preach the sermon without giving way to his feelings and he substituted a letter.

A site for the new Cathedral, situated at the South End, had been purchased in 1859, but for sufficient reasons work was not begun before the Bishop's death, in 1866. In the interval the episcopal residence was established in South Street, and, for a time, a hall on Washington Street, called the Melodeon, was used for Sunday services, while Sunday-school was held in the Chapel of the Holy Family on Beach Street. In 1862 the Unitarian Church at the corner of Washington and Castle Streets was purchased, and, beginning December 10, was thereafter used as a pro-Cathedral.

Almost the first act of Bishop Williams, upon assuming episcopal charge of the diocese, was to appoint the Rev. P. F. Lyndon vicar-general and rector of the Cathedral. He did this in order that the erection of the new Cathedral should be supervised by Father Lyndon, who had shown remarkable business capacity in other positions. On April 29, 1866, ground was broken, and on September 15 of the following year the corner-stone was laid with impressive ceremonial. In response to Bishop Williams' first appeal for funds to carry on the work, 5^36,000 was at once subscribed by a number of Boston Catholics. Further contributions and the earnings of fairs held at sundry times greatly augmented the fund later. When the building reached its present condition work on it was suspended, and it was decided to dedicate it. This was done December 8, 1875, in the presence of all the Bishops of the Boston Province, priests to the number of about one hundred and fifty, and an assemblage of the faithful that overflowed through the portals into the neighboring streets. Archbishop Williams, who in the preceding May had received the pallium in the same place, was celebrant; Bishop Lynch, of South Carolina, preached the sermon, and the musical service was rendered by the Catholic Choral Society of Boston and the Cathedral sanctuary choir, composed of young men and boys.

The Cathedral is built in the style of the early English Gothic, in conformity with the designs furnished by the celebrated architect, P. C. Keely, of Brooklyn, N. Y. Its form is that of a cross somewhat broken in the external outline by a chapel attached to the northern arm. It covers 46,000 square feet of ground, sur- passing in that particular the Cathedrals of Salisbury, Strasbourg, and Venice. Its length, including that of the chapel, is 364 feet; without the chapel, 300 feet; general width, 90 feet; across the transept, 170 feet; and its height to the ridge-pole, 120 feet. The front, facing Washingtoii Street, comprises the gable pierced by the main portal, and two flanking towers, massively buttressed, entered, respectively, by the right and left

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

29

portals. The towers are of unequal dimensions and are still without the spires called for by the architect's drawings. With these, the northwest tower will be 200 feet in height, and the southwest tower 300 feet.

From the spacious vestibule,, entrance to the interior is obtained beneath an arch constructed of bricks, taken from the ruins of the Ursuline Convent of Charlestown, burned by a mob in 1834. The enclosure consists of nave, aisles, transept, and clerestory. The view is uninterrupted from end to end, save by the two rows of

ALTAR OF ST. PATRICK, CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS.

clustered pillars supporting the central roof, and an elaborately carved pulpit, stationed at the junction of the transept and the southern aisle. Over the front vestibule is the choir gallery, 40 feet square, containing the great organ, and capable of accommodating a choir of more than 300 members. On either hand is a choral tribune with projecting balcony. The interior is yet unfinished, as a closer view reveals. Empty niches remain to be filled and much ornamentation to be added. The ceihngs are simple, yet graceful, designs in wood. That

30

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

of the transept shows a large cross of inlaid wood, while that of the chancel is decorated with figures of angels painted upon a surface of gold. A large sculptured figure of an angel in prayer rests upon the capital of each of the four pillars, marking the intersection of nave and transept. From these, and all the rest of the pillars, spring two bands of gas-jets, which illummate the church at night.

The high altar, erected in an octagonal apse off the sanctuary, is a beautiful design in variegated marble. To the left of it, on the gospel side, is the Bishop's chair, the presence of which entitles the church to be called a Cathedral. On the extreme right of the transept, in a recess, facing the southern aisle, is a chapel of the Virgin, having a costly altar, the gift of Tobias Boland and wife. On the extreme left, in a corresponding

ST. JOSEPH'S Al.TAR, fAlII lOI iRA L (IF Til , llolA CROSS.

situation to that of the Virgin, is the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, much larger in size and considered a master-work of architecture. Then there are two side altars nearer to the central altar, that on the right being dedicated to St. Patrick, and the one on the left to St. Joseph.

Most of the windows are costly works of art. The largest are two transept windows, measuring 40 feet by 20 feet that in the south wall representing the finding of the true cross, the gift of the Confraternity of the Holy Cross; and that in the north wall, representing the exaltation of the cross by Emperor Heracluis, the gift of E. F. Boland, in memory of Bishop Fitzpatrick. Lighting the organ gallery is a large rose window of unique design. Over the main altar in the chancel wall are five beautiful windows, the central three of which

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

31

severally donated by the Rev. A. S. Healy, A. E. S. in memory of Bishop Fitzpatrick, and the Rev. P. F. Lyndon illustrate the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ. The clerestory of chancel and transept contain twenty-four smaller windows, showing full-length figures of the twelve Apostles, the four Prophets, the four Evangelists, and the four greatest divines of the church. The subjects of the remaining windows in the north wall are St. Augustine, gift of Rev. J. P. Gilmore, 0. S. A.; St. Francis of Sales, gift of Rev. H. P. Smyth; St. Thomas of Canterbur3^ gift of Rev. T. B. McNulty; St. Michael, gift of Michael Gleason; Memorial of Pius IX., gift of the Catholic Union, St. John the Baptist, gift of Rev. J. J. Gray; St. John, Apostle, gift of Revs. Michael and James Masterson ; Holy Family, memorial of Joseph" lasigi ; St. James, gift of James Collins ; St. Edward, gift of Rev. James E. O'Brien. The subJL-cts of the other southern windows are: Mother of Mercy, gift of Rev. Michael O'Brien ; St. Rose of Lima, gift of Rev. James McGlew ; St. Bridget, gift of Rev.

ALTAR OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN, CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS.

William Halley ; St. Patrick, memorial of Patrick Treanor; Confession of St. Thomas, memorial of Thomas Dwight ; St. Vincent de Paul, gift of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul ; Mary Magdalen, gift of A. J. Teeling; St. Cecelia, memorial of Rev. A. Sherwood Healy; St. Agnes, gift of the Young Ladies' Sodality; and St. William, gift of Patrick Denvir.

The auditorium is heated by steam, conveyed from two boilers in the basement to pipes running along the walls behind an ornamental screen-work which completely hides them. In addition to the three portals in front, there are two others, one for each extremity of the transept. The pews will seat from 2,500 to 3,000 people, and as many more can find standing space. In the basement is a chapel for children, containing the altar of the first Cathedral in Frankhn Street. In addition to this and the boiler rooms, there are eight school rooms, capable of seating three or four hundred pupils each. Back of the altar, in the chapel, is the crypt, where repose the remains of Bishop Fitzpatrick, the projector of the Cathedral, and Father Lyndon, the moving spirit of its erection.

32

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

KliV. I.. M, A. CORCORAN, Rector Cathedral of the Holy Cro

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON. 33

Two remarkable events, namely, the conferring of the pallium on Bishop Williams and the dedication of the building, had already distinguished the history of the new Cathedral. Both were joyous occasions, and likely to be recalled with pleasure for many years afterwards. The next was likewise a memorable event, but a sad one. The great auditorium was crowded again, but the sentiment which pervaded the assemblage was grief for an esteemed pastor. The occasion was the obsequies of Father Lyndon, who had died at St. Joseph's, April ig, 1878. Referring to his decease, The Pilot said : "As a pastor and remarkable worker for Catholic progress in New England for so many years, as the faithful friend and co-worker of the Most Rev. Archbishop in bearing much of the archdiocesan toil, bringing all the energy of unusual business capacity to the service of religion, and blending with it the love and zeal of a pastor of souls, he has filled so large a place that his loss cannot be truly known until the void is to be filled."

Patrick Francis Lyndon was born in 1812, in the parish of Crossmaglen, County Armagh, Ireland. Encouraging the studious disposition he manifested in his earliest years, his parents gave him all the educa- tional advantages they could afford. Under the tutorship of a priest, at Newry, he made rapid progress in the classics and acquired a desire to enter the ministry. He came to this country when scarcely more than a boy, and having made known his wishes to the Bishop, was, by that prelate, sent to Montreal to prosecute the studies necessary to prepare him for the priesthood. After spending four years there, he accompanied John J. Williams, the present Archbishop, to Paris, in order to finish his studies at the Seminary of St. Sulpice. This was the beginning of a friendship between the two men which only death could interrupt. He was only two years at St. Sulpice when he was ordained priest. On returning to Boston he was assigned to duty at the Cathedral. When Father Tyler was made Bishop of Hartford, Father Lyndon succeeded to the rectorship of the Cathedral. Subsequently, he served as pastor of St. Mary's Parish, Charlestown, SS. Peter and Paul's, South Boston, and St. Joseph's, West End, handling the affairs of each congregation with marked success. He was at St. Joseph's when called upon by his friend and Bishop to direct the great work of build- ing the new Cathedral. Having earned the gratitude of the diocese by ably performing this service as far as it was possible, he returned to St. Joseph's, and, once more, had nearly cleared the church property of debt when he died. .As before stated, his body was interred beside that of Bishop Fitzpatrick in the Cathedral crypt, an honor usually reserved for those who had borne episcopal dignity. He left the bulk of his property to be applied to the object of finishing the Cathedral. His house on Allen Street he bequeathed to the parish of St. Joseph; while his clothing and all the rest of his personal property were, by his wish, sold and given over to the poor.

The present rector of the Cathedral, the Rev. L. M. A. Corcoran, is filling with great acceptance to the people the position which has been filled by a long line of eminent men who were distinguished alike for fine abilities and exalted piety. His dignified yet gentle manners and kind heart have won the love of his parish- ioners and the high regard of all with whom he associates. Father Corcoran is a Boston boy, having been born in the parish of which he now has charge in 1849. He was educated in the Quincey Grammar School and the Boston Public Latin School. After graduating from the latter institution, he took a course at the seminary at Montreal, from which he graduated in 1879, receiving the degree of B. S. T. He then came to the Cathedral as assistant priest, and in 1892, on the death of Father Boland, he was made permanent rector. Father Corcoran is blessed with good health and spirits, and it is sincerely hoped that he has before him a long career of usefulness in his exalted calling.

The most memorable of all the events with which the Cathedral has been associated down to the present day was the celebration of the Archbishop's Silver Jubilee, March 12, 1891. Over five thousand persons had obtained admission before the services began. In the procession which emerged from the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament at ten o'clock A. M., besides the students of St. John's Theological Seminary, and over two hundred priests, secular and regular, were Rt. Rev. Matthew Harkins, Bishop of Providence ; Rt. Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, Bishop of Springfield ; Rt. Rev. D. M. Bradley, Bishop of Manchester ; Rt. Rev. James A. Healy, Bishop of Portland; Rt. Rev. L. S. McMahon, Bishop of Hartford; Rt. Rev. L. DeGoesbriand, Bishop of Burlington; Rt. Rev. B. J. McQuaid, Bishop of Rochester, N. Y. ; and Rt. Rev. John J. Conroy, Bishop of Curium. In the rear of all came the venerable prelate, erect and serenely dignified, whom they had come to honor. The

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

scene was deeply impressive. The officials of the Pontifical High Mass, which ensued, were: Archbishop Williams, celebrant ; Very Rev. William Byrne, D. D., V. G., assistant priest ; Rt. Rev. Mgr. P. Strain and Rev. Thomas Shahan, deacons of honor ; Rev. Leo P. Boland and Rev. L. M. A. Corcoran, deacon and sub- deacon of the Mass ; Rev. James F. Talbot, D. D., Rev. Hugh Roe O'Donnell, and Rev. George Patterson, masters of ceremonies. Bishop Healy was the orator selected to give verbal expression to the feelings which

ARCHBISHOP'S RESIDENCE, BOSTON

filled the hearts of all present. None there knew so well the theme. He had been the friend and co-laborer of the Archbishop since the time when both were obscure curates and could speak as one who testifies. It was an easy and grateful task to him, while it would have been impossible of accomplishment to any one else. Few listened to that memorable address who failed to carry home a vivid recollection of its eloquence and power.

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON. 35

St. /Iftar^'8 Iparisb, Cbavlestown,

MARY'S CHURCH, Charlestown, was the second Catholic church erected within the limits of what is now called Boston, and St. Mary's Parish was the first set off from the extensive territory attended from the Franklin Street Cathedral. Having enlarged the Cathedral, Bishop Fenwick, for the greater convenience of the workmen employed at the navy yard in Charlestown, and at the glass works in East Cambridge, he being especially desirous that their children might receive instruction more frequently, decided to build a church for them. On August 15, 1828, he examined and approved a site, and suggested that a meeting of the people interested be held August 25. This was done, and a plan for building a church capable of containing 120 pews was adopted. By selling half the number of pews in advance, $6,000 was obtained. With this sum in hand, a lot was bought from Amos Binney for $1,569, and the work of erecting the church was begun October 3, 1828, when the corner-stone was laid. The ceremony was performed by Bishop Fenwick, assisted by the Rev. Patrick Byrne, Rev. William Wiley, Rev. W. Tyler, Rev. John Mahony, and Rev. R. D. Woodley. They assembled and robed at the house of a Protestant gentleman, named Robertson, and went in procession to the site of the proposed church on Richmond Street. After the ceremonies Bishop Fenwick preached a sermon appro- priate for the occasion. The church was finished in the following Spring, and was dedicated under the patronage of the Virgin Mary, on May 10, by Bishop Fenwick, assisted by the Rev. James Fitton and Rev. William Wiley. The High Mass was celebrated by the Rev. W. Tyler, assisted by Fathers Fitton and Wiley, and Bishop Fenwick, as on the former occasion, preached the sermon. The building measured 80 by 45 feet, and showed no effort at architectural display.

It was attended by the priests of the Cathedral until 1830, when the Rev. Patrick Byrne was appointed pastor, and territory that extended to Reading was assigned to him as a parish. After spending thirteen years at St. Mary's, Father Byrne was sent to New Bedford in response to the requests of the Catholics in that district for a resident priest. He died September 4, 1844, and was interred at St. Augustine's Cemetery in South Boston. Father Byrne was one of the first priests ordained within the diocese by Bishop Cheverus. He came originally from Kilkenny, Ireland.

The Rev. George F. Goodwin, a convert, succeeded Father Byrne. His pious example and zealous labors were enjoyed by the congregation but for three years, when death removed him. His successor was the Rev. Patrick F. Lyndon, who, in the six years of his pastorate, enlarged the church and remodeled the parochial residence. The next pastor, the Rev. George A. Hamilton, built the Church of St. Francis de Sales on Bunker Hill, besides a new parochial residence. The Rev. William Byrne, who succeeded Father Hamilton, was the first Catholic priest permitted to offer Mass within the precincts of the State Prison in Charlestown. Father Byrne was made vicar-general of the diocese in 1878, and his pastorate terminated with his acceptance of the presidency of Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Md., in 1880. Then came the present rector, the Rev. John W. McMahon, D. D. In May, 1879, the golden jubilee of the parish was celebrated by clergy and people.

The need of a larger church, and one more in consonance with the times, had been felt before this. To build a church that would supply this need immediately became a primary object with Father McMahon. Circumstances, however, obliged him to move slowly in the matter. He soon became convinced that it would

36 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

OLD ST. MARY'S CULRLH, CHARLESTOWN.

ARCHDIOCESE OF BOSTON.

37

ST. MARY'S CHURCH, CHARLESTOWN.

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH OF NEW ENGLAND

be the work of years. Bearing this in mind, he modernized and otherwise improved the existing church. In the course of time, he bouglit out all the pew owners, whose rights were derived from the absolute sale of the pews in earlier times. Having cleared the old church of debt, he purchased a lot fronting on Warren Street, and bounded by Winthrop and Solay Streets, for $30,000. Considerable progress had been made with the building when the corner-stone was laid. This ceremony was performed October 29, 1887, by Archbishop Williams, the Rev. A. V. Higgins, O. S. D., preaching the sermon for the occasion. Among the ecclesiastics present was the Rt. Rev. Lawrence S. McMahon, Bishop of Hartford, the brother of the rector. The dedication took place October 2, 1892. Archbishop Williams officiated on this occasion also, with the assistance of the Very Rev. William Byrne, D. D., V. G. The Pontifical High Mass was celebrated by the Rt. Rev. Matthew Harkins, D. D., Bishop of Providence, with Vicar-General Byrne as assistant ; Rev. P. A. McKenna and Rev. J. E. Millerick, deacons; Rev. W. J. Millerick and Rev. J. W. Allison, masters of ceremonies; while the

sermon was delivered by the Rev. Henry A. Brann, D. D. Bishop McMahon of Hartford, Auxiliary Bishop Brady of Boston, and nearly one hundred priests were present in the Sanctuary.

The church is a design of P. C. Keely, of Brook- lyn, in what is known as the Tudor Gothic style. At present, its exterior gives the impression of massiveness and strength. The chief cause of this is the absence of the spire with which the tower, forming the most conspicuous feature of the front, is to be completed. Another is the prevalence of Rockport granite in blocks, with uncut outer surfaces, somewhat relieved by brick trimmings. It seems to be one of those archi- tectural problems which needs but one touch of the artist's wand to transform it into something entirely different and satisfying. The form is that of a rectan- gle, measuring on the external dimensions 81 by 152^- feet. The tower is now 90 feet high, but the top of the spire will be double that distance from the ground. The interior is one of Keely's most effective designs. Unprepared for the absence of pillars, or other obstruc- tions of the view, a sense of spaciousness combined with suggestions of wholeness and oneness give a pleasurable surprise. After this comes the effect of the light and color, both abundant and intense enough, and no more. The details do not thrust themselves out beyond the main features, and yet are seen without effort when looked for. The ceiling, supported by carved trusses,